Trading is an important, albeit often underappreciated part of investment management. In this email, we’ll share with you our investment philosophy and how it drives our trading approach. While Parsec uses both funds and individual securities across client accounts, this blog applies more to those portfolios with individual stock holdings. In general, we use funds for smaller-sized accounts because of the immediate diversity it provides, at a relatively low cost. We generally use individual securities for larger client portfolios as these portfolios offer economies of scale that can overcome trading costs. Over the years, we have fine-tuned our trading approach with an eye towards minimizing costs and maximizing efficiency.
As you’ve heard us say time-and-again, Parsec does not engage in market timing. Instead of trying to determine when one asset class will underperform and another outperform, we select our securities using a bottom-up fundamental research approach. Using individual equities as an example, this means that we first screen any new stock ideas for attractive financial characteristics and then perform additional due diligence to determine its total return potential over the next several years. Once a stock is added to a Parsec portfolio, we monitor the company regularly for changes in its competitive environment, its growth drivers, and valuation levels. However, we do all of this in light of our long-term thesis on the stock, as opposed to the market’s near-term noise.
Taking a long-term investment approach in which we focus on a security’s total return potential often allows us to buy and hold securities for many years. This keeps our portfolio turnover – a measure of how frequently assets are bought and sold – low, and in turn keeps our trading costs low. When we do trade we use block trades whenever possible. By aggregating all of our trades into one large transaction we can better assure that clients receive the same price when a given security is bought or sold.
In addition, our focus on a security’s long-term potential largely circumvents the need for specialized trade orders. Typically short-term traders, and not long-term investors, utilize limit orders, stop orders, or other types of non-market orders. These specialized trades often come with additional costs, including higher transaction fees for retail investors and various opportunity costs.
One such opportunity cost can arise when setting short-term price targets. For example, using a limit order to purchase a security requires an investor to set a price target. However, without thoroughly researching a security using fundamental analysis, price targets are often based on “a gut feel” or are knee-jerk reactions to an investor’s past experience with an asset. In effect, unconscious emotions can drive the trading decision and lead to even higher costs. These can come in the form of missed opportunities, as when a stock declines but doesn’t quite reach an investor’s price target to buy. In this case if the stock then continues higher an investor may have missed-out on significant upside potential.
Another opportunity cost is possible when a security pays a dividend, but because an investor was waiting for a slightly lower price before buying, he or she inadvertently forfeited the added income. In some cases the dividend payout might have amounted to more than the savings associated with buying at a lower price.
While there are many types of trades, and some that do add value, in general we’ve found that specialized trade orders often come with more costs than benefits. This is why Parsec identifies assets using fundamental research and takes the long-term view on a security’s total return potential. Doing so inherently reduces security turnover in a portfolio and thus trading costs. It also avoids incurring hidden opportunity costs and, we believe, increases the likelihood of reaching your longer-term financial goals.
The Parsec Team